|This study was aimed at investigating the diversity of RNA viruses in the wastewater using next-generation sequencing (NGS) as well as the evaluation of the relationship between the NGS data and surveillance data of viral infectious diseases at the same area. Eight different human pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, parechovirus, aichivirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, and enterovirus) were detected in the influent samples by NGS. The relative abundances of these viruses in the wastewater followed the same trend as that of the viral infectious disease cases in the same area as revealed by the paediatric sentinel surveillance. These results indicate that the epidemic situations of viral infectious diseases reflect the diversity of the human RNA viruses in wastewater. It is suggested that monitoring the diversity of human RNA viruses in the wastewater by NGS is useful for comprehensive detection of the epidemics of viral infectious diseases.